Technical information

GENERAL INFORMATION OF What to look for when choosing TILES

Nowadays, manufacturers offer tiles that are produced with newer and better technologies, for which information about care and installation is required.

We want to provide general information on how to avoid problems in choosing and laying the tiles in order to ensure the appropriate resistance, slipperiness, other technical characteristics, installation method.

Provide all your questions to our employees, and we'll do our best to provide a professional answer.

TILE DEVIATIONS ACCORDING TO STANDARD (LST EN 14411)

 

Regardless of how much everything is moving forward with the new technology, during the manufacturing processes of the tiles, certain variations are allowed for I type (geometry inaccuracies, shade tolerance, surface curvature). It is important to know that the same caliber of tiles can have a size deviation of ± 0.5% (according to European Standard EN 14411 requirements).

Glass, wood, metal, natural stone, handmade products, mosaics – no standards apply to these products and often require specific installation.

Specific collections have features normally associated with the design or construction of the tile and include a variety of patterns, surface roughness, uneven coating, tile edge roughness, etc.

Upon receipt of the tiles there is always a possibility to check the tiles before laying. It is advisable to place the tiles on the floor taken from different boxes and then start laying. Complaints made after work is done – will not be accepted.

DIFFERENT COLORS (tones)

Ordered tiles’ shade may vary from in-store exhibited examples.

Tint (referred to as the "tone") – is particular manufactured batch’s tile color nuance. Due to the features of production technology, produced color tones may vary between different batches. Such tile color variations are common for all tiles and décor produced with high-temperature furnaces.

Sometimes our eyes can not notice the difference, but it can be visible after laying in a room. This is a very important when ordering extra tiles (if there is shortage). Manufacturer does not provide information about the tone in their catalogues, the tone is only indicated on the packaging and therefore it is recommended to save the box.

DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS (caliber)

Due to the manufacturing process in high temperature, tile mass expands differently, so the tile size (caliber) accurately determined only after the production process. If the manufacturer does not indicate in the catalog that the tile and decor are of one caliber, their sizes may differ slightly with each other. It is also important to know that there are allowed levels of variation of the same caliber of tiles ± 0.5% (according to European Standard EN 14411 requirements). Before starting work on laying it is advised to place the tiles on the surface to assess the size of the spaces between the tiles.

The most common recommended spacing is 2-4 mm and for classic design tiles it can be even wider.

After the advance of technology, many manufacturers trim the tiles after the combustion process. These tiles are called rectified (catalogues mark that RT). These tiles can be placed with a minimum amount of spaces of 1-1.5 mm, but for gluing on the heated floor 2-3mm.

TILE RESISTANCE BY PEI AND MOHS SCALE

When choosing tiles it is very important to find out whether the tiles are suitable for the selected area.

Ceramic tiles are classified according to five levels of glaze resistance in PEI scale.

The higher the resistance of the grade, the lower the risk of glaze wear.

PEI 5-4 is recommended for higher activity of the passable areas in a private home (living room, kitchen). It is recommended to use a mat near the entrance to wipe the sand and dirt from outside, which can damage the surface.

PEI 3-2 is recommended for low activity areas like toilets, bathrooms, 2nd floor lounges where slippers are used.

PEI 1-0 is suitable only for walls.

 

Stone tiles’ resistance to abrasion is classified according to the MOHS scale. Polished surface of the stone tiles are recommended for use where there is a lower activity. Otherwise over time, if there is a high activity the surface can become matte, there might be scratch marks. In high-intensity areas (shopping centers, warehouses, garages, industrial premises) technical tiles are used with thickness of 10-18 mm.

Moh's Scale Image

RESISTANCE TO COLD

Only frost resistant tiles can be used outside: glazed or unglazed stoneware tiles, clinker. During the manufacturing process these tiles are compressed significantly harder, so it reduces the number of air bubbles, so the tile does not absorb moisture. If the tile is susceptible to cold, the water inside it freezes into ice which cracks the glazed surface.

For outside use, it is very important to prepare the groundwork, choose a low temperature glue (C2), and joint compounds (elastic). It is also recommended to take into account the manufacturer’s instructions of glue and filler.

It is advisable to use a double layer of glue coating method for gluing outside (glue should be applied onto the well-cleaned, primed concrete surface and the back side of the tiles).

For outside use, the tiles are laid with spaces 3-5 mm. Clinker is recommended with 8-10 mm gap. In this way it is possible to level the shuttering of coarse ceramics with allowed dimensional tolerances.

SPECIAL FEATURES OF DÉCOR AND ITS CARE

Decor with glass or glass elements

Décor with hand decorated glass or glass items may have uneven surface with irregular ornaments on the surface - it is by no means a defect – it is a unique handmade characteristic of the product. Also glass decorated ceramic tiles (some collections) on the surface may have cracks which is so-called CRAQUEL effect.

Decor with gold and glossy elements

Décor with pure gold, over time, may lose gloss and acquire antique gold look. Applying metal dust on the tile glaze gives the tile multicolored nuances that creates the pearl effect and enhances the colors.

Handmade decors

Irregular pictures, different color strokes, as well as a difference between the tiles - are typical handmade decors - unique handmade characteristics of the product.

Care of decor

For the aforementioned decors with special features one should be very careful to choose the right care solutions. Do not use abrasive cleaners containing granular substance that can damage the surface. Use only water and neutral detergent. Failure to consider these recommendations will lead to the loss of product’s original appearance.

METALIZED TILE SURFACE CARE

Tiles with metallized surface look are coated with porcelain (stoneware) and iron powder. These type of tiles are not recommended for industrial application and large shopping centers. These tiles can not be cleaned with acidic cleaners because after acid reaction with iron it can cause rusting.

Today there are many offers of mosaic with gloss metallized surfaces. Cleaning solutions should be considered carefully, inform the workers about the cleaning methods after the laying. Do not use abrasive cleaners containing a granular substance that can damage the surface. Use only water and neutral detergent, do not use rough sponges which can also scratch the surface. Failure to consider these recommendations will lead to the loss of product’s original appearance.

 

 

GLAZED TILES

Glazed tiles are probably the most common type of tiles on the market. Typically, ceramic and/or stone tiles are glazed.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION:

Glazed wall tiles, despite the fact how it is produced and what is the base material (red or white clay, stone or clinker, whether extruded or pressed), are not classified by base resistance. The most important floor glazed tiles’ characteristic is resistance to abrasion of the glaze surface. According to EU standard EN ISO 10545-7, which is an advisory and it is not necessary to comply with, when there is an estimated eligible product specification, glazed floor tiles are classified as follows:

Class 0         These type of glazed tiles are not recommended for floors;

Class 1         Used on floor area where walking with shoes with soft soles or barefoot, when there is no abrasive dirt (for example residential bathrooms or bedrooms, which can not be directly accessible from the outside);

Class 2         Floor areas with light usage with soft sole shoes or normal footwear and occasional low abrasive dirt content (e.g. living rooms except the kitchen, entrances, and other rooms where there may be intensive movement). This does not apply to non-conventional footwear such as with fittings and bindings;

Class 3         Floor areas with light usage with normal footwear, usually when there is a small amount of abrasive dirt (e.g. residential kitchens, halls, corridors, balconies, loggias and terraces). This does not apply to non-conventional footwear such with fittings and bindings;

Class 4         Floor areas, where there is constant moving around, there is a certain amount of abrasive dirt and conditions are more aggressive than class 3 (e.g. entrances, commercial kitchens, hotels, exhibition halls and trade);

Class 5         Floor areas with intensive continuous movement and there is a certain amount of abrasive dirt and most aggressive conditions possible for glazed floors (e.g. in public spaces such as shopping malls, airports, halls, hotel lobby and industrial sites).

This classification is valid for use under normal conditions. The most important consideration should be given to footwear, the intensity of the movement and the intended method of care. The floor should be protected from abrasive dirt at the entrances to the buildings, also providing shoe cleaning mats.

In special cases areas with very intense movement and abrasive dirt, unglazed floor tiles can be offered.

 

 

STONE TILES

Stone tiles (unglazed) is a newer type of tile (as compared to ceramic), which is very popular in public facilities and private homes.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION:

Stone tiles are pressed from very fine special ground rock and is "baked" at over ~ 1200 ˚C temperature. The main parameters of stone tiles are:

  • Water absorption (EN ISO 10545-3);
  • Crack strength (EN ISO 10545-4);
  • Bending strength (EN ISO 10545-4);
  • Resistance to deep abrasion (EN ISO 10545-6).

These parameters depend at what temperature and how long the tiles are baked (e.g. Apavisa tiles are baked twice), as well as the quality of raw materials and pressing strength. Tile price depends not only on the technical aspects but also on the "perfection" of design or exclusivity and technological manufacturing features.

Stone tiles’ surface can be:

  • Matt (natural surface);
  • Polished (full glossy surface);
  • Semi-polished (lappato, satinado – surface is semi-polished);
  • Rough, structured (bocciardato - rough).

As technology evolves, manufacturers create and other types of surfaces, for example "rigato”, “tassellato”, “corrugato", "soft".

According to the EU norms tiles’ slipperiness (wearing shoes) falls into the classification of "R":

  • R9 (slope angle of 6˚ to 10˚);
  • R10 (slope angle of 10˚ to 19˚);
  • R11 (slope angle of 19˚ to 27˚);
  • R12 (slope angle of 27˚ to 35˚).

Walking barefoot, tiles require classification of A, B, C (important for public buildings, swimming pools, saunas, showers):

  • A - where it is walked with dry bare feet or in locker rooms etc.;
  • B – in the showers, around swimming pools etc.;
  • C – on the steps leading into the water, under the water, swimming pool edges with standing water etc.

Rectified (in Italian – “rettificato”, in Spanish – “rectificado”) tiles are becoming increasingly popular due to the fact that their measurements are very accurate compared to non-rectified. Non-rectified tile size variations can be ±0.5%, and rectified tile dimensions are practically identical. Accordingly, due to additional process of rectification tiles are more expensive, but when you need (or want) to use multiple colors, surfaces or different collections all in one area or room (talking about the same manufacturer's products) and have the same width and gaps between the tiles - it's a great option. Due to the impeccable quality ambition, some manufacturers produce only rectified tiles (for example "Apavisa”).

 

 

CLINKER TILES

Clinker tiles – are tiles that are manufactured by extrusion method.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION:

Typically ceramic tile is produced by compressing dry pellets. Ceramic tiles that are manufactured by extrusion are generally called clinker tiles. During the extrusion production of clinker tiles, the desired shape (and size) is derived from a continuous strip of special clay, the residual moisture content is about 15%. This mass is pressed through a special form, and cut into pieces at the right length. Decorative clinker tile details resistance to cold was made possible by the extrusion production method.

During dry compaction process there are limited opportunities to create intricate shapes and designs. Extruded clinker tiles and an abundance of detail make it simpler to achieve maximum aesthetic results.

Special colors and resistance to wear – are the result of the long and painstaking work. Unglazed, natural and resilient - these are the classical properties of extrusion produced ceramic tiles. Baking procedure requires an unusual factor in this industry – time. In tunnel furnace baking procedure takes approximately 36-48 hours. Slowly moving through the oven, gently going through the processes of heat, combustion and cooling. The typical baking process shows the characteristics of the product. This affects the production of special color and hardness of clinker tiles. In particular, uniform pore structure due to the melting temperature ensures tile hardness and high fracture strength. Combustion temperature and atmosphere device is easy to operate and experience ensures great results. Baking in this type of furnace also gives enough time for colorimetric chemical reactions - the time that is required to reveal the natural beauty.

 

APPLICATIONS

Extrusion process ensures frost resistance of clinker. Higher water absorption, specific pore microstructure and optimal glue bonding strength provide tile properties which allow them to be used not only for interior decoration but also on balconies, terraces, and any other outdoor conditions.

 

Piazza blocks - is an elite AgrobBuchtal series for outdoor courts, terraces, sidewalks, parking. It is a unique product offering exceptional quality and aesthetics.

 
   

 

  • Thickness 4cm;
  • Easy to clean - basically rain is enough to keep the surface clean. Due to the non-porous structure of the block the dirt does not accumulate (dust, old leaves, dirt, etc.). Much more resistant to oil stains (this feature can be further strengthened by block impregnation);
  • The blocks are baked about two times longer than ordinary clinker – therefore on the surface of clinker forms a natural crust, with a minimum number of micro-pores, so after the first year, you will feel the difference between ordinary clinker and Piazza blocks. In practice, you will see that in 10 years it will look as if blocks were laid yesterday;
  • From 8 to 10 times stronger than concrete blocks;
  • Slip class R11 / B – designed for outdoors, suitable for outdoor stairs;
  • Very wide range of colors and formats (7 colors x 3 sizes = 21 combinations);
  • It is possible to print most extraordinary floor ornaments, carpet patterns;
  • Piazza dimensional deviation of ± 1-1.5 mm (large format), while clinker ± 7mm!;
  • Simpler and less expensive laying because the blocks are with extremely precise dimensions;
  • Virtually no opportunity for the moss/grass to grow in the gaps between the blocks, since blocks are placed close to each other;
  • A unique opportunity to get shaped surfaces;
  • Nice to walk barefoot – soft surfaces with rounded edges;
  • Safe for children – after falling on the blocks there is less risk of bruising;
  • Can be combined with other Agrobbuchtal clinker products because the color gamut matches. It includes clinker stairs, clinker tile facades, pedestals and so on.
 
 

 

 

 

    

 

 

 

NOTES: ceramic floor laying outside

Facade insulation and the first carrying layer are attached with metal pins with cartridge. Both layers of reinforcement are installed with thin-layer flexible tile glue BOTACT M 21 while priming of deep soil is done with concentrate BOTACT D11.

Uneven unheated surfaces are moistened and putted with leveling compound BOTACEM M90 from 0 mm to 30 mm thick.

Tile glue BOTACT M21 on primed surface is covered with jagged float, which is selected depending on the tile length: up to 50 mm - 3 mm teeth, from 50 mm to 108 mm - 4 mm teeth, from 108 mm to 200 mm - 6 mm teeth, over 200 mm - 8 mm teeth.

Gap width is chosen according to the tile material, side length and surface uses: stone tiles up to 150 mm - approximately 2 mm, over 150 mm - from 2 mm to 8 mm, ceramic floor tiles and clinker - from 4 mm to 10 mm, ceramic decor tiles with the side over the 300 mm - 10 mm. Depending on the width of the gap putty BOTACT M30/31/32 is used.

Expansion joints 10 mm wide (from them fresh glue should be cleaned out until base, then they are filled with silicone BOTACT S5) should be equipped on the inner and outer corners, at intersections with other materials containing different expansion coefficients (5 mm width) and every 3-6 m. This dimension is measured by the color of the tiles, and solar intensity.

 

TILES FOR SWIMMING POOLS

In all epochs and cultures, the water element was especially treasured not only as a source of life, but also as of wealth. Especially in our modern era swimming pool is no longer a luxury, but seen as revitalizing oasis.

 

TECHNICAL INFORMATION:

Since old times, ceramics are used in pools. Tiles for swimming pools are not only functional, but also beautiful and aesthetically pleasing. It includes the following features:

  • Ideal to meet all hygiene requirements, easy to clean;
  • Resistant to corrosive materials;
  • Durable, which at the same time means it is cost-effective;
  • There are no restrictions on the shape of pool.

 

Aesthetic appearance: nearly unlimited range of colors and shapes allow implementation of customized solutions. Visible and tangible surface structure ensures diversity. Higher quality glaze coating keeps the shine - so bright water and light interaction causes pleasurable sensations that delight the eye and the soul.

 

Structural solutions: for different types of swimming pools, different systems for pool edges are offered. There is an option of uniform edge of the pool available and accessories such as grills, silent discharge valves and so on are well adapted. It is possible to incorporate long lasting pool lanes, safety and other signs.

 

For indoor pool spaces there are a variety of special parts and solutions: benches, stairs, steps, showers and bath systems. As well as various non-slip floor solutions for children's swimming pools, showers, an area around the swimming pool, locker rooms, etc.

 

TECHNICAL TILES

Technical wall and floor tiles can be used where there are high hygiene and safety standards requirements, as well as where the floor is exposed to a series of mechanical, chemical and/or abrasive elements.

MARBLE TILE CARE

Non-polished tile cleaning

Use degreasing products such as “Fila PS/87” or “TERGON” from Delta Research, or neutral detergent like “Fila Cleaner” or “Clean Stone” from the Delta Research.

Non-polished tile protection.

Protection for this type of material provides a neutral safety product "Fila MP90" or "SEAL" from Delta Rasearch, and liquid wax: "FILAMATT" or "PULSAR" from the Delta Research for natural (matte) effect, “STONEWAX Fila” for satin glow, “FILALONGLIFE” or "STONE COAT” for glossy effect.

Protection the tiles outside.

In order to protect marble in the outside from the harsh weather, use "FILAHYDROPER" or "IDROPER” from Delta Research. In order to provide oil-resistance protection (required for surfaces where cars are parked, kitchen) cover it with "FILAFOB" or "SEAL” 24 hours after “FILAHYDROPER" or "INDROPER" application. The stain resistance use “WET SEAL” of the Delta Research. Excess can be cleaned immediately after drying, using cloth soaked in "FILASOLV" or "Solvent GAMA” from Delta Reseach.

Daily care.

For daily treatment alternating washing methods are best to use:

- 1 time wash with clean water;

- 1 time wash with diluted wax.

In any case, after each cleaning, the surface must be dried.

 

PETRACERS manufacturer

 

"Capitone" collection of ceramic tiles are a handmade product. Tile contours, color variations between different tile sizes are possible (puffed, straight and 10x10) and are treated as features of this collection.

For corners, edge finishing – only straight tiles of this collection are cut. ATTENTION: puffed shape tiles (bombato) – are not cut. Special corner elements this collection does not have.

  • Longer installation hours    +50%*
  • Waste                               +50%*
  • Modularity                         very small

*Compared with ordinary tiles (20x20 format).

 

Tiles should be laid by very experienced workers.

Before making an order from this collection, the client must be informed of all the laying features of this collection. This order will be executed only when the client confirms by signature that he is informed with the information provided. After the client's consent (approved by the signature) no complaints will be accepted relating to the information contained in this page.

BISAZZA Spa manufacturer

Bisazza glass mosaic has two types of mosaic depending on the base:

  1. Bisazza glass mosaic on a mesh.
  2. Bisazza glass mosaic on paper.

 

1. PLACING THE MOSAIC 20x20 BASED ON THE MESH

1. MATERIALS TESTING (Fig. 1)

Before starting the work, be sure to check BISAZZA mosaic leaves. Make sure you have enough materials to fully complete the work. Each box has its own production, color, order numbers. If you run short of materials these are the details you should provide to the seller.

     

     Fig.1

2. SURFACE PREPARATION (Fig.2)

This step explains how the surface, on which mosaic will be laid, must be prepared, leveled and whitened (if the base material will be in several colors - the final result may produce a corrupted mosaic image). Stir up BISAZZA glue at recommended proportions Start + Up. Before the application of glue on plaster surface it must be thoroughly primed with the appropriate primer (consult with consultants of chemicals for the construction industry). Prepared surface should be thoroughly dried in for at least 12 hours. Glue should be spread evenly with a smooth constructional pad.

   

   Fig.2

3. AUXILIARY LINES (Fig. 3)

Sketch lines on the prepared base, that will divide BISAZZA mosaic leaves. On the floor lay three leaflets of mosaic next to each other so that the gaps between the leaves are identical. Then measure all the lines. Transfer the measurements to the working surface and with the help angle ruler and level tool grade the surface. In this way the base will be divided into rectangles, each of which consists of nine mosaic leaflets.

    

   Fig. 3

4. PREPARATION OF GLUE (Fig.4)

Prepare the glue and stir together START and UP components. With 3.5 mm brush the surface area of no more than nine mosaic sheets. Initially, apply a thick layer of glue with a flat BISAZZA comb edge, then apply the second layer with toothed comb and evenly coat the cover area. Now you can position the mosaic leaves.

 Fig. 4

5. LAYING AND FIXING (Fig. 5)

If mosaics are on a mesh - it must be directly pressed into the glued base. IMPORTANT! the gap between the mosaic pieces and leaf mosaic must be the same, so that afterwards the gaps would be equal.

  Fig.5

5.1 ADHESION (Pav.5.1)

After gluing mosaic leaves, press the mosaic with BISAZZA equalizer so that the mesh is firmly fixed with the glue.

Pav.5.1

6. CHECK THE GAPS (Fig. 6)

After gluing mosaic leaves and before the glue is dry, arrange the gaps between separate mosaic pieces so that all the gaps would be the same. This is done with the help of a knife, cutting along the gap between the individual pieces of a mosaic and using the BISAZZA pad adjusting the gap width. This is the most scrupulous mosaic installation work that requires patience, but the end result is improved significantly. Then leave mosaic for 24 hours to dry.

 Fig.6

7. LUTING (Fig. 7)

Before luting procedure remove any glue residue from the gaps, thoroughly vacuum the surface and wipe off any remaining dust. Mix up epoxy filler, add the mixture of hardener (Part B) to the mixture (Part A). Make sure that all the mixture is used up completely. Mix well both components with easy and thorough strokes until smooth and then you can immediately use the compound. With the help of the pad put the filler on the mosaic and using the leveling tool move from the bottom to the top and diagonally to the pieces of the mosaic so that to completely fill out all the mosaic gaps. Make sure to remove excess putty. Wear protective equipment.

 

Fig.7

8. CLEANING (Fig.8)

Before the filler starts to dry, cleaning procedure can be started. For this, use the cleaner BISSAZA SHINE. Prepare two separate containers of detergent: in one immerse cloth SCRUB and without pressing too strong, swipe through the mosaic in circular motion to remove the excess putty and flatten the gaps. Dip the BISAZZA SPONGE in a second container with cleaner and wipe from the mosaic all the remaining putty residue. Finally, wash BISAZZA SPONGE with water, moisten it and wipe the mosaic so as to remove all residues and mosaic would shine.

 

Fig. 8

2. INSTALLATION OF MOSAIC 20x20 BASED ON PAPER

1. MATERIALS TESTING (Fig. 1)

Before starting the work, be sure to td / check BISAZZA mosaic leaves. Make sure you have enough materials to fully complete the work. Each box has its own production, color, order numbers. If you run short of materials these are the details you should provide to the seller.

 

  Fig.1

2. SURFACE PREPARATION (Fig.2)

This step explains how the surface, on which mosaic will be laid, must be prepared, leveled and whitened (if the base material will be in several colors - the final result may produce a corrupted mosaic image). Stir up BISAZZA glue at recommended proportions Start + Up. Before the application of glue on plaster surface it must be thoroughly primed with the appropriate primer (consult with consultants of chemicals for the construction industry). Prepared surface should be thoroughly dried in for at least 12 hours. Glue should be spread evenly with a smooth constructional pad.

   

   Fig.2

3. AUXILIARY LINES (Fig. 3)

Sketch lines on the prepared base, that will divide BISAZZA mosaic leaves. On the floor lay three leaflets of mosaic next to each other so that the gaps between the leaves are identical. Then measure all the lines. Transfer the measurements to the working surface and with the help angle ruler and level tool grade the surface. In this way the base will be divided into rectangles, each of which consists of nine mosaic leaflets.

Fig. 3

4. PREPARATION OF GLUE (Fig.4)

Prepare the glue and stir together START and UP components. With 3.5 mm brush the surface area of no more than nine mosaic sheets. Initially, apply a thick layer of glue with a flat BISAZZA comb edge, then apply the second layer with toothed comb and evenly coat the cover area. Now you can position the mosaic leaves.

  Fig. 4

5. LAYING AND FIXING (Fig. 5)

Carefully follow the laying of paper, it shows the lines you need align, preferably in the vertical direction. Constructor must lay mosaic paper side facing him. IMPORTANT! the gap between the mosaic pieces and leaf mosaic must be the same, so that afterwards the gaps would be equal. After gluing mosaic leaves, press the mosaic with BISAZZA equalizer so that the mosaic pieces are firmly fixed with the glue.

 

Fig.5

6. PAPER REMOVAL (Fig. 6)

Soak the BISAZZA SPONGE in the water and moisten the surface of the paper, until the paper can be removed without the hassle. Be careful because the glue is still in drying stage. Take a bottom corner of paper sheet and pull diagonally to the top so that the individual pieces of mosaic would not move out of place.

Fig.6

7. CHECK THE GAPS (Fig. 7)

After gluing mosaic leaves and before the glue is dry, arrange the gaps between separate mosaic pieces so that all the gaps would be the same. This is done with the help of a knife, cutting along the gap between the individual pieces of a mosaic and using the BISAZZA pad adjusting the gap width. This is the most scrupulous mosaic installation work that requires patience, but the end result is improved significantly. Then leave mosaic for 24 hours to dry.

 

Fig.7

8. PREPARATION FOR LUTING (Fig. 8)

After 24 hours, remove any glue residue from the mosaic gaps using the knife. Soak BISAZZA SPONGE in warm water and wipe off all the glue and paper residue from the surface of the mosaic. Repeat the procedure as many times as needed until you remove all residue from the surface of the mosaic. Make sure that the water would not stay in the gaps. Now, the mosaic is ready for luting and cleaning.

 

Fig.8

9. LUTING (Fig. 9)

Before luting procedure remove any glue residue from the gaps, thoroughly vacuum the surface and wipe off any remaining dust. Mix up epoxy filler, add the mixture of hardener (Part B) to the mixture (Part A). Make sure that all the mixture is used up completely. Mix well both components with easy and thorough strokes until smooth and then you can immediately use the compound. With the help of the pad put the filler on the mosaic and using the leveling tool move from the bottom to the top and diagonally to the pieces of the mosaic so that to completely fill out all the mosaic gaps. Make sure to remove excess putty. Wear protective equipment.

  

Fig.9

10. CLEANING (Fig.10)

Before the filler starts to dry, cleaning procedure can be started. For this, use the cleaner BISAZZA SHINE. Prepare two separate containers of detergent: in one immerse cloth SCRUB and without pressing too strong, swipe through the mosaic in circular motion to remove the excess putty and flatten the gaps. Dip the BISAZZA SPONGE in a second container with cleaner and wipe from the mosaic all the remaining putty residue. Finally, wash BISAZZA SPONGE with water, moisten it and wipe the mosaic so as to remove all residues and mosaic would shine.

Fig. 10

GENERAL COMMENTS

POOL

Before you start laying mosaic work in the pool, make sure that the pool’s base is adequately protected from water and is impermeable. Area of work must be protected from the sun and rain. After the tiles are laid the entire area should be covered for at least 20 days to prevent the water collecting in the pool.

Mosaic - in order to ensure a better adhesion, we recommend the use of mosaic with paper base.

Base - before laying it is recommended that the base of the pool would be carefully sanded so that the surface is completely smooth.

Glue - gluing BISAZZA mosaic in a pool on a concrete base, it is recommended to use glue only for that purpose, the best recommendation is to use manufacturer’s BISAZZA START+UP (KIT A) glue.

 

IMPORTANT! At least for 20 days from the mosaic laying it is not recommended to pour the water into the pool.

THERMAL POOLS

In this case, it is recommended to use an epoxy filler recommended by the manufacturer BISAZZA FILLGEL (KIT B) filler.

MOSAIC CUTTING

Mosaic can be cut in these ways:

- Using a pair of pliers when cutting every piece separately;

- Using a diamond disk when the whole mosaic leaf is cut. Do not try to cut the whole leaf straight away, as mosaic can crack.

CARE

For daily care it is recommended to use normal neutral detergents. Do not use wax, oil, hydrophobic, phosphoric or orthophosphoric acids.

KERMA Spa manufacturer (floor laying)

Laying on a concrete base

Floor base thickness can be between 8 cm and 12 cm. If the base is cast recently, first, let it dry completely for 28-30 days. Make sure that the layer of concrete is completely dry, clean and flat. Any cavities, cracks have to be filled. Recommended floor gap – 15 mm.

 

ATTENTION!

If the floor is with floor heating system, turn it off for 60-70 hours prior to the tile laying, and then wait 2-3 weeks after the tile laying has been completed. It is recommended to activate the heating gradually increasing the temperature from minimum to maximum.

 

FLOOR INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

Kerma Spa tiles are made from natural materials, so tiles have color differences, uneven surfaces. In order to get a great result, we recommend laying the tiles taken from various palettes.

LAYING, TREATMENT AND CARE IS A VERY SIMPLE PROCESS. FOR SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS SEE COMMENTS BELOW.

 

HOW TO USE GLUE

• Follow the glue manufacturer's instructions; mix the glue with water until a homogeneous mass;

• Clean and wash the stones before laying them on the floor;

• Making sure the concrete surface is totally clean, place some glue on the combed pad;

• Before gluing put some glue on the bad side of each stone that are supplied by Kerma Spa ("double grip");

• To ensure good adhesion to the tile floor, press each tile into the glue with gentle movements so that glue would come out. Tile gaps minimum 15mm.

 

ATTENTION!

If the floor on which the tiles are to be laid is some other material than concrete, it is recommended to use glue that is specific and suitable only for that surface.

 

HOW TO USE FILLERS

In about 24 hours, after the tile laying has been completed, puttying with a rubber pad an area of 2m2 at a time, immediately wipe the putted surface with a damp sponge.

Residue of putty inside the roughened surface on the tile surface does not have to be completely removed, since it produces a realistic, old stone effect. If you want to get a completely clean surface, carefully fill every gap separately with putty and then immediately wipe the filler off the sides of tiles.

 

Never use oxides to change the color of the filler. We only recommend BIOPIETRA filler for the floor which is supplied by Kerma Spa.

 

Do not lay floor at temperatures below +5 °C or above +35 °C.

HOW TO USE TREATMENT SOLUTIONS

• All treatment solutions for floor, that are supplied by Kerma Spa, are simple, eco-friendly, water-soluble and easy to use;

• Treatment solutions supplied by Kerma Spa are breathable, so any moisture in the tiles can evaporate through the protective layer;

• You can walk on the treated floor after one day, but for more intensive walking and furniture placement it is recommended to wait minimum a few days;

• All solutions with the "synthetic polymers” in water emulsions, natural and synthetic waxes are blended with appropriate additives to obtain the best possible result as well as a quick drying, and stain resistance.

 

BIOCOTTO TILES

 

These are handmade tiles, where almond shells are used in the manufacturing process. These shells are heated at high cooking temperatures, giving tiles exceptional diversity and aesthetics. Ecological materials are used in tile production.

It is recommended to follow the manufacturer's instructions, in order to get a great end result.

 

FLOOR INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

• The floor must be dry, clean and free from dust and grease;

• BIOCOTTO floor tiles can be installed using glue or cement mixture;

• After the gluing, make sure that the tiles and base are completely dry. Drying time depends on the used mixture:

  • if glue was used, then the drying period is 15 days;
  • if cement mixture was used, then the drying period is 30-35 days.

• afterwards can be puttied.

 

ATTENTION!

In order to protect the tile surface from stains, before puttying it is recommended to impregnate tiles with oil TRATTAMENTO PROTETIVO MASTER.

After the floor was puttied, clean the floor surface using cloth or sponge with acidic cleaner DETERGENTE ACIDO PROFUMATO DEOXAL diluted with water at ratio 1:10-50 depending on the situation. Use protective gloves. Then rinse the floor with clean water.

After the initial clean-up with the aforementioned detergent (after about 2-5 days, depending on the season) when the floor is fully dried, you can use the solutions for surface treatment.

 

BIOCOTTO FLOOR TREATMENT INDOORS

To obtain a gloss effect:

• Impregnate with two layers using PROTTETIVO 001 IMPREGNANTE;

• Impregnate with two layers using PROTTETIVO IMPREMEABBILLIZANNTE 002 FINITURA LUCIDA.

 

In order to obtain a matte effect:

• Impregnate with two layers using PROTTETIVO 001 IMPREGNANTE;

• Impregnate with two layers using PROTTETIVO IMPREMEABBILLIZANNTE FINITURA OPACA.

Required quantity: 1 liter of solution for every 10m2 of each layer.

 

BIOCOTTO FLOOR TREATMENT OUTDOORS

To obtain a natural effect:

• Impregnate with two layers using TRATTAMENTO PROTTETIVO MASTER.

 

To get “satinato" effect:

• Impregnate with two layers using TRATTAMENTO PROTTETIVO MASTER.

• Impregnate with two layers using PROTTETIVO IMPREMEABBILLIZANNTE FINITURA OPACA.

Required quantity: 1 liter of solution for every 10m2 of each layer.

 

It is important to treat BIOCOTTO floor tiles using these solutions, in order to ensure that they are resistant to oil stains and are also able to breathe.

 

CARE

For correct daily care use the manufacturer's recommended solution DETERGENTE NEUTRO DAY, diluted with water at ratio 1:10-50 depending on the situation.

 

ATTENTION!

Do not use any solutions if the tiles will be laid in the pool area, as treatment solutions can reduce the slip class coefficient, while walking barefoot.

 

Florim Spa manufacturer (thin tiles CONCEPT “SLIM/4" – 4mm)

 

ADVANTAGES:

• No time wasted while removing old tiles;

• Less problems, more time saved during the renovation;

• Simple and quick installation;

• Reduces the need to modify existing doors/windows;

• There is no need to dispose of old tiles;

• Easy to cut, drill, treat;

• Fully complies with international standards;

• Technical characteristics are comparable to the thicker stone products;

• Reduced load for holding constructions and the building;

• Easy to clean, maintain, does not require special care.

 

Purpose of use. SLIM/4 recommended to use:

  1. For laying on the existing floor/wall surfaces (renovation of old ceramic, marble, terracotta, stone surfaces);
  2. On the concrete base;
  3. On floor panels with floor heating;
  4. On raised floor;
  5. For interior walls;
  6. For exterior walls (regarding the facade - glue only on a strong foundation, not suitable for ventilated facades).

 

Used for homes and commercial buildings, where there is no intense movement:

• Residential houses;

• Bathrooms;

• Shops;

• Luxury stores;

• Offices;

• Bars;

• Hotels;

• Leisure centers;

• Sports centers.

 

SLIM/4 tiles are not recommended for use in indoor and outdoor conditions, where:

• there is concentrated activity (e.g. industrial solid wheel carts, forklifts, motor vehicles or caterpillars);

• there are large static charges (e.g. warehouses, factories, terminals, under the street furniture).

 

CUTTING

For cutting operations same tools can be used as for full-thickness stone tiles such as:

• Manual or electrical saw with a blade for cutting stone tiles;

• Saw with water-cooled diamond-tipped blade for cutting stone tiles;

• Water jet cutting method.

 

DRILLING

Drilling operations are carried out:

• Drilling with stone tile drills;

• Cavity drillers and drilling machine (for large cavities);

• Water jet cutting method (for very accurate cutting).

Before the drilling operation, make sure that the working platform is designed for intended load. During drilling do not use the hammer function, avoid excessive vibrations on the surface of the tiles, if needed turn on the water cooling system for the drill point.

 

CLEANING

Two types of cleaning operations are recommended.

• Initial cleaning is carried out after the tile laying and puttying has been completed. After laying, clean the remaining putty (cement or epoxy) according to the recommended instructions of the putty supplier;

• For normal cleaning use neutral cleaning solutions which will be recommended by the sales manager. Do not use abrasive cleaners, cleaners containing wax (to avoid formation of fat on the surface of the tiles).

 

SURFACE CARE

Tile material does not absorb liquids - so it does not require additional waxing or impregnation after the tile laying has been completed.

 

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

This information is only a recommendation as each individual project has its own specific features that may require special solutions (other than those referred to in this information sheet) – and should be analyzed separately. For each project, we will contact the manufacturer and we will provide the most appropriate, customized solution.

 

ARMSTRONG MANUFACTURER

 

Linoleum

Worldwide there are only three companies that produce real linoleum - that is made from entirely natural materials (rubber, cork, oil) that are friendly for the environment. Armstrong is one of them. The other two are TARKETT and FORBO.

 

Linoleum can be classified according to:

  • Wear-resistance – for households (21-23), for commercial spaces (31-34), for industrial areas (41-43). This is marked with symbols in the catalogue - for households from 2 to 3, for the commercial space from 1 to 4 and for industrial areas from 1 to 3.
  • Thickness - usually 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.2 mm, less common 4.0 mm. Linoleum should be chosen according to the design and thickness, depending on what kind of movement there will be in the room. For schools, shops and similar spaces 2.5 mm thick linoleum is recommended. For gyms, schools’ sport halls, and similar spaces 4.0 mm thick linoleum is recommended.

Linoleum is not produced specifically for offices, hospitals, schools and so on. In the catalogue, there is a table (page 20, 21) which shows a suitability of collection for different facilities.

Marmorette Acoustric; Korkment are a special collection of linoleum that contains cork bark for absorbing sound, perfect for areas where there is movement with the wheels; it quickly recovers its initial shape (no imprints). Marmorette LCH/Linodur LCH – conductive linoleum for operating rooms, where there is an electric shock hazard. Along with these collections special tapes are used.

Linoleum is sold in 30m×2m (60m2) rolls. When ordering less than a roll, price increase by 20%.

Linoleum is suitable for heated floors.

It is recommended to always use the welding seam for linoleum, which can be applied to the same color as the linoleum. It is used so that no dirt or water would be able to penetrate the gaps between the linoleum. It is sold in 50m length rolls. Welding seams are not necessary if the linoleum is laid in a small room, but it is required in rooms where moisture accumulates (e.g. bathrooms). It prevents moisture from getting under the linoleum.

If the room is still under construction or repair, installed linoleum should be covered with paper or film to prevent scratching the surface.

It is easily cleaned, best to dry clean. If there is water on the surface of the linoleum for a long time, part of it can be absorbed into the linoleum and lead to a bad smell (that does not happen with the vinyl).

 

VINYL (PVC)

Vinyl is very similar to linoleum, but is made of synthetic materials, has one thickness and is classified in two ways – Homogeneous and Heterogeneous. Homogeneous vinyl is made from one material and heterogeneous vinyl is made up of two parts with beautiful surface and pad. The main difference is that homogeneous vinyl’s maximum wear resistance may be higher than the heterogeneous vinyl, which leads to higher durability of homogeneous surface.

Also vinyl is different from linoleum due to the fact that vinyl is not only sold in rolls (1,80m×25m), but also as tiles (60,8cm×60,8cm). Welding seams are not required for tiles. They are perfect for raised floor, as well as public buildings.

Vinyl does not change color at all even in direct sunlight, which is a common problem for linoleum.

No need to impregnate. Both, linoleum and vinyl, are produced using PUR surface protection system therefore impregnation is unnecessary.

For laying it is recommended to use UZIN, HEMPEL, CASKO, MAPEI glue.